Archive

Posts Tagged ‘Madras’

Review: The Church in Madras (Rev Frank Penny) 1904-12

October 16, 2015 1 comment

‘The Church in Madras’

A 3-volume red hardback set (I.88.1) housed in Gladstone’s Library, Hawarden, Wales.

WP_20150623_005

Written by Rev Frank Penny from 1904. Final volume published in 1912.

Frontispiece: Presented by the Secretary of State for India (1905, Vol 1-2), Presented by the Secretary of State for India in Council (1912, Vol 3).

WP_20150623_004

Vol 1    1640 – 1805     Inc. St Mary’s, Madras, page 81

Vol 2   1805 – 1835     Inc. St Stephen’s, Ooty, page 320

Vol 3    1835 – 1861     Inc. All Saint’s, Coonoor, page 169

WP_20150623_007

It was thrilling to see on page 196, the word ‘should’ written in pencil in the margin by William Gladstone replacing ‘shall’, proving that Gladstone himself read these volumes!

400px-Fort_St._George

The East India Company (EIC)

The EIC was neutral about Christianity and its work, but their Charter of 1698 (renewed in 1792 by William Wilberforce) required them to employ Chaplains. These, in turn, had to be approved by the Bishop of London and had to be from the Protestant Communion.

However, the EIC officially discouraged and sometimes prevented the work of missionaries and Christian mission. The Royal Danish Mission and the SPCK (mostly Germans) worked in the south of India for the ‘Great principle of the duty of promoting Christian Knowledge’. There was therefore a marked difference between the work of the EIC Chaplains and that of the SPCK missionaries.

Fifteen Churches were built within the bounds of the Madras Presidency by the Company and six or eight more were built privately.

By 1835-61, 41 Churches had been built in India.

See also – Bishop Stephen Neill, ‘The History of Christianity in India’.

Travel: San Thome Basilica, Madras (now Chennai)

October 14, 2015 Leave a comment

Just yards from the beach, south of Chennai, this Church is traditionally built near to or over the site where ‘Doubting’ Thomas, the Apostle to India, was reputedly martyred in AD72, having come to India in AD52.

2014_11010103

This large white Roman Catholic Cathedral dates from 1896, and was given the status of Basilica in 1956.

2014_11010105

It is one of only three churches worldwide said to contain the tomb of one of the twelve disciples of Jesus.

2014_11010106

Marco Polo recorded a chapel on the seashore during his travels in Asia in 1293. The original small church was built by the Portuguese in 1523. The Prelates on this brass plaque in the Basilica date back to 1600.

2014_11010107

Travel: St Mary’s Church, Fort George, Madras (now Chennai)

October 11, 2015 1 comment

This is the first English Church built in India. It is the oldest English Church east of Suez.

2014_11010051

WP_20150623_006

Clive of India was married in the church, as was Elihu Yale, an early founder of Yale University.

2014_11010080

The barracks were built in 1687 but St Mary’s was begun in 1678. It was consecrated (controversially) by Richard Portman in October 1680. The organ was installed in 1687. The spire was added in 1710.

2014_11010061

The walls are 4ft thick, it was built to withstand siege and cyclone and had a blast-proof roof of solid masonry. The brickwork is 2ft thick.

2014_11010063

The building could accommodate 500 people. The distinctive black granite baptismal font dates from 1680.

2014_11010057

My journal entry (October 2014):

St Mary’s – the oldest English church east of the Suez. So many similarities with St Andrew’s cathedral in Singapore, just not as big. So many brass memorial plaques to those who died, often of sickness and disease, many very young. We strolled in the heat of the beautiful sunlit church garden. A peaceful place. Butterflies. Odd how a mercantile and mercenary Raj took the Church with it as part and parcel of Empire. It was obvious you would think, wasn’t it? Well, as the years have unfolded, no – it was a bad idea!  Felt a little strange that Grandad would have known this church. Presumably as a bandsman, he may even have set foot inside. At the back of the building, I saw an old fading photo of George Town at the time (1905) he would have been there, so very different to today’s Chennai’.

2014_11010079

The great Lutheran Pietist missionary, exemplar and intermediary, Christian Friedrich Schwartz (born 1726) arrived in India in 1750. He is remembered in India fondly and in the stirring epitaph at the base of the large white marble sculpture in St Mary’s (by John Bacon Jr, 1807).

2014_11010077

Schwartz was truly the first Protestant missionary to India, not William Carey as often supposed. Carey arrived in India two years after Schwartz’s death at Tanjore in 1798. Schwartz died a rich man but he left all his wealth to the SPCK for its work in India.

2014_11010074

WP_20150623_009

Social History: George Olliffe at Fort St George, Madras, India

July 27, 2015 1 comment

In 1905 (100 years ago) my grandfather George Olliffe was serving with the British army in Madras (now Chennai) at Fort St George in India. I have blogged his story here. He was a bandsman in the Leicestershire Regiment (1Bn) and was posted to British India in 1903 at a time when the Raj was at the height of its powers on the sub-continent. He left India in 1906.

2014_11010042

Lt-Colonel Webb’s 1912 ‘ A History of the Services of the 17th (The Leicestershire) Regiment’ records, ‘The regiment sailed from Durban on the 7th November 1902 for Madras (from fighting in the South African Boer war), and arriving on the 30th, disembarked on the 1st December and proceeded to Fort George‘. Bandsman Olliffe arrived in Fort St George from Britain four months later on 6th March 1903.

0 (1)

In October 2014, I went to Chennai. One of the highlights of the trip to southern India was to visit the Fort St George military compound, some of which still houses units of the Indian military.

2014_11010038

It was thrilling for me to walk through part of the Fort where Grandfather must have drilled, to view his old parade ground and perhaps even to look at one of his old barrack blocks.

2014_11010046

This is a photo record of my visit to this evocative place within our own family history:

2014_11010088

The Parade Ground and Drill Square at Fort St George

2014_11010048

Some of the vast walls and ditches surrounding the Fort.

2014_11010041

2014_11010092

Another part of the compound adjacent to St Mary’s Anglican Church, the first English church built in India (1678-80).

2014_11010085

The thought that Grandfather may have set foot, perhaps for a parade service, in this very same church was very moving.

2014_11010058

0

Social History: George Olliffe – Victorian army bandsman, British India

August 22, 2012 7 comments

Just 100 years ago in 1912, my Grandfather was one year away from the end of 12 years with the Colours and his discharge from 1st Battalion, Leicestershire Regiment (The Tigers).

This is Part 2 of his story …

I have looked up the 1901 and 1911 UK Census documents and found that my Grandfather is listed in both archives as part of the British army records of the day. 

1901 Census – at Glen Parva Barracks, Leicestershire

In the 1901 census, Grandad was at Glen Parva Barracks (Headquarters, 17th Regimental District), nr Leicester. On the night of Sunday 31st March 1901, he is listed (pg 12, Line 5) as George W Oliffe (note spelling) of Acton, London, (London then crossed out, Mdx added), Single, Age 16, Private, Leicestershire Regiment.

1911 Census – at Talavera Barracks, Aldershot, Hampshire

In the 1911 census, Grandad was based at Talavera Barracks (Part area 11C), Wellington Lines, Aldershot, nr Farnham. On the night of Sunday 2nd April 1911, he is listed (pg 7, Line 27) as George Oliffe of Acton Middlesex, Single, Age 26, Private, 1st Leicestershire Regiment, Occupation Musician. The commanding officer is recorded as Major General H M Lawson, GB.

The Leicestershire Regiment was formed as the county regiment on 1 July 1881. It had first been raised as the 17th Foot in 1688. The regimental depot was at Glen Parva, and the regiment consisted of: The 1st and 2nd Battalions (formerly the 1st and 2nd battalions of the 17th Foot), 3rd (Militia) Battalion (formerly the Leicestershire Militia) and 1st Leicestershire Rifle Volunteer Corps, redesignated as the 1st Volunteer Battalion in 1883.

Prior to 1881, the 17th Regiment of Foot did not have a depot in Leicestershire. Under the prevailing brigade system, regiments shared a brigade depot. However, with the army reforms of that year, the 17th became the Leicestershire Regiment and the 27th Brigade depot was abolished. The army was reorganised along territorial lines and each county regiment was to have its own depot. That of the Leicestershire Regiment was the newly built Glen Parva barracks near South Wigston. 

1st Battalion Leicestershire Regiment deployment:

1899 South Africa (heavily involved in the Boer War)
1902 India: Madras
1904 India: Belgaum
1906 England: Shorncliffe, Kent
1910 England: Aldershot, Hampshire
1912 Ireland: Fermoy

I recently located Grandad’s Long Service Attestation in the National Archives at Kew. He signed up for 12 years, not the 21 years my father had previously suggested. His army record is fascinating and runs to four pages (I have the A3 photocopies of all four). I also found a George Olliffe (right spelling, wrong person) b. 1856 in Stow-on-the-Wold, who joined the Grenadier Guards!

1901 Long Service Attestation

British Army Service Records (also available on www.findmypast.co.uk)

1760 – 1915 (Held at National Archives, Kew)

Record Number – WO97 5621 5 (Chelsea Hospital)

Front page

Oliffe (note spelling) George William (not James as per his later marriage certificate).

Born: 1885 Acton, Middlesex (a Birth Certificate records his actual birth date as 11th November 1883)

Attestation: 4th February 1901

Soldier Record Number: 6050

Grandad joined the Leicestershire Regiment (the Tigers) at Hounslow Recruiting Office. It’s clear that he was previously from the Brentford District Schools (Percy School) at the time of joining. He stayed for 12 years ‘with the Colours’, spending almost a third of his service in India. He left the Army on 5th February 1913 (as a ‘time expired’ soldier, so was not called up for WW1).

The second page of the army record is telling and records his description:

Age: 15 years, 11 months

Height: 5 feet

Weight: 93 lbs (just 6 ½ stone which seems shockingly underweight?)

Chest: 31 / 32 inches

Complexion: Medium

Eyes: Blue

Hair: Brown

Religion: Church of England

Next of Kin: Father, William Oliffe. Brentford Union

This section of distinguishing marks also concerned me – does this record instances of workhouse abuse?

Tattooed on both forearms

Scars: back of right hand, knee, back of head, left elbow, right buttock, front of chest

Page three – ‘Statement of Services’ of 6050 George William Oliffe (italics mine)

Posted to Leicester Depot on 5th February 1901 (for recruit training)

Attained 3rd class Certificate of Education 16th April 1901

Granted 1st Good Conduct Badge 4th February 1903

Attained 18 years old on 4th March 1903 (date and age possibly suspect?)

Granted Messing Allowance (Bandsman) 4th March 1903

Transferred to India 6th March 1903 (probably to Fort George, Madras)

Appointed Bandsman 1st November 1903

Elected Service Pay 1st April 1904

Granted pay as a 1st Class soldier 4th March 1905

(1st Bn transferred from Madras to Belgaum on 16th January 1905)

Granted 2nd Good Conduct Badge 4th February 1906

Advanced to Senior Private 1st March 1906

(Left India on HMT Dongola Thursday 17th October 1906 (see details below)

(Arrived England 9th November 1906 in ‘cold and very wet weather’)

Serving with ‘C’ Company, 1st Bn in 1909

(In the UK – at Shorncliffe, Kent and Aldershot, Hants – through to February 1913)

Discharged on the termination of his first period of engagement 3rd February 1913

Signed by: R.S Dyer-Bennett Lt for Captain Adjt Leicester Regs.

Footnote: ‘Troopship HMT Dongola was built for the P & O Shipping Company by Barclay, Curle and Coy in Glasgow. She was launched on 14th September 1905 and saw service on the company’s Far East services. From 1906 she was taken up for seasonal trooping by the War Office between England, India and Hong Kong. In 1915 she was requisitioned and used as a hospital ship at Gallipoli. She was sold for scrapping to T W Ward Ltd of Barrow in Furness, in June 1926′.

The fourth page – the dates of Grandad’s military service:

Home:  4/2/1901 to 5/3/1903 –  2 years in UK (presumably Glen Parva Barracks, Leicestershire)

India:     6/3/1903 to 9/11/1906 – 3 ¾ years in India (at Madras and Belgaum, south of Goa)

Home:  10/11/1906 to 3/2/1913 – 6 ¼ years in UK (first Shorncliffe, Kent and then Aldershot)

BELGAUM, a town and district of British India, in the southern division of Bombay. The town is situated nearly 2500 ft. above sea-level; it has a station on the Southern Mahratta railway, 245 m. S. of Poona. It has an ancient fortress, dating apparently from 1519, covering about I 00 acres, and surrounded by a ditch; within it are two interesting Jain temples. Belgaum contains a cantonment which is the headquarters of a brigade in the 6th division of the western army corps. It is also a considerable centre of trade and of cotton weaving. There are cotton mills. Pop. (1901) 36,878.

Grandad joined the British army in the same year that Field Marshall Frederick, 1st Earl Roberts 1832-1914 (author of 41 Years in India: 2 vols) became the last Commander-in-Chief of the Forces. During Grandad’s time in the army, British power in India was at its height and as an Army Bandsman – a clarinetist – he would have been at the centre of its pomp and ceremony.

The regimental music of the Leicestershire Regiment, which my Grandfather would have played can be heard here.

To my mind, the British Army seems to have been the making of Grandad. Essentially he escaped to another world, but one which he presumably understood well; yet another institution as it so obviously was. Perhaps he simply swapped one set of known rules for another?

The garrisoning of India and the Colonies was a priority for the British Imperial army. Rudyard Kipling wrote ‘The Absent-minded Beggar (1899); a jingoistic poem about the role of the ordinary soldier in defending the Empire. Grandad came into the army in this same late Victorian period. My Father remembers him reminiscing happily about India; he obviously enjoyed his experience and talked about ‘having a servant and keeping a monkey’.

Barnes in History of Regiments and Uniforms of the British Army (Peacetime soldiering, p223) records something very similar:

In India, the private solder of the period lived a Gentleman’s life. He had native servants to do all the dirty work and could even get the ‘nappy’ with his little lamp and portable kit to come and shave him whilst he lay in bed. Various pets were kept. Barracks were spacious, the country itself was full of interest with fishing and shooting for all who desired it and there was sport, dances and the social life. From this period came the Hindustani words: Cushy, Blighty, Chit and Roti’.

Grandad’s Sporting Record 1907 – 1911

(Source: Green Tiger Journal)

The Green Tiger Journal contains many references to Pte. Oliffe playing Cricket and Hockey for the Regiment.

Playing Cricket for the Regiment in 1907 and 1909

P40: ‘The cricket season has now commenced, though no regimental match has yet been played. On the 11th May the Band (Lewis 21, Hinch 20) beat a local team, Holy Trinity Church, by an innings and 34 runs, 95 to 21 and 40, Oliffe performing the hat-trick’.

Played 27th May Shorncliffe, Kent – win for the Regiment by 19 runs: Pte. Oliffe. B Bush 6

Played 31st May Shorncliffe – match abandoned due to heavy rain: Pte. Oliffe, not out 5

Played 10th June Shorncliffe – met their first reverse at hands of Royal Scots: Pte. Oliffe, not out 1

1st Royal Scots: Capt. Drysdale, c Challenor, b Oliffe 1

Played 14th June Shorncliffe – win by Leicestershire Regt by 8 wickets:

Ptes.Wilkes,Daft and Oliffe did not bat

Played 17th June Folkestone – lost by 4 wickets:

Pte. Oliffe, c Payne, b Goodsell 2

A.C. Edwards, c Nott, b Oliffe 31

Capt. A. I. Paine, c Oliffe, b Green 52

Played 26th June Shorncliffe – the Regimental team were beaten by 80 runs:

Pte. Oliffe c. Tawney, b Audsley 0

May 8th 1909 Played at Folkestone, won by 80 runs: Pte. Oliffe (batted last) not out 6

May 12th Played on Garrison Ground v 11th Hussars, won by 120 runs: Pte. Oliffe 2 for 7, did not bat

May 13th Played on Garrison Ground v 5th Battn K.R.R., won by 76 runs and 3 wickets:

Oliffe took 4 wickets for 37, did not bat

May 21st Played on Garrison Ground v N. Staffordshire Regt, won by 186 runs: Pte. Oliffe, not out 7

Playing Hockey for the Regiment in 1909 and 1911

Army Hockey Tournament (Aldershot, March 1st) Leicestershire Regt v Bedfordshire Regt

‘We started by pressing, and a good deal of loose play in front of the Bedfords’ goal resulted in shots from Oliffe and Cunningham which just went wide … our forwards were constantly pressing. The home team was: Daft, goal; Capt. Challenor and Nott, backs; Gandy, Richardson and Brookes, half-backs; Capt Creagh, Pepper, Cunningham, Lieut. Yalland, and Oliffe, forwards’.

Army Hockey Tournament (Aldershot, November 20th) Leicestershire Regt 2 v Bedfordshire Regt 0

Bdsmn. Daft; Capt. E. L Challenor and Corpl. Nott; Lance-Corpl Brooks, Sergt. Richardson, and Capt. F. Le M. Gruchy; Lieut. E. S. Tidswell, Lieut. T. Prain, Sergt. Cunningham, Sergt. Pepper, Bdsmn. Oliffe.

Army Hockey Tournament (Aldershot, December 14th) Leicestershire Regt 5 v Lancs. Regt 2

Reserve: Pte. Oliffe

Reading Grandads’ army record and these numerous sporting entries in the Green Tiger Journals, I have the sense that his life significantly improved and that he never looked back. He spent 12 years in the army and whilst not rising in the ranks, (he remained a private to the end), kept his head down and was awarded several ‘Good Conduct’ badges. He had joined just after the Boer War (1899-1902) ended and when he left the army in 1913, aged 28 (or was he possibly 30?), he was a ‘time-expired’ solder and as such legitimately avoided being called up for the Great War.

I only wish that I’d had the chance to have heard more about his experiences from him when I was growing up in the 60’s. He died in 1969. My memories consist mainly of an elderly, blind man in a dark suit wearing spectacles. He was clearly so much more than that!

He’d had quite a life, not all of it pleasant but he had obviously made the most of the hand he’d been dealt.

George (and Ethel) Olliffe are buried in the Backwalls cemetery at Stow-on-the-Wold in Gloucestershire.

Footnote: For a very good history of the 17th Foot and the Leicestershire Regiment, I recommend the following volume: http://www.naval-military-press.com/history-of-the-services-of-the-17th-the-leicestershire-regiment.html The period of my Grandfather’s service is covered between p224-234.

%d bloggers like this: